Addressing ethical and research integrity challenges

Protect research participants.


  • Develop other governance mechanisms that will allow research participants to protect their legitimate control interests.

Protect the environment, ecosystems and cultural heritage.


  • Respect for ecosystems and cultural heritage should be considered as a factor that may limit openness.
  • To support development of further guidelines, the principle of openness should be further explored and elaborated according to the nuances of different research fields and research methods.
  • All stakeholders (researchers, RPOs, research infrastructures etc.) should follow the principle “as open as possible and as closed as necessary”

Ensure distributive justice in international knowledge production.


  • RFOs, RPOs and public policies should promote OA models that incur no costs for the publisher, such as green or diamond.
  • RFOs and publishers need to take into account the unequal opportunities that researchers from periphery and LMIC have in accessing and contributing to OS.
  • Researchers from affluent countries could take the initiative in contributing to OS resources and practices, bearing much of the burden of associated costs.
  • Extend the Global Code of Conduct for Research in Resource-Poor Settings with a section on the responsibilities and obligations that OS practices create for actors including researchers, RPOs and RFOs.

Foster Citizen science.


  • To alleviate concerns around citizen science transparency regarding (1) the goals of research, (2) openness regarding the various roles and interests of (citizen) scientists, and (3)open data publication should be sought.
  • RFOs, RPOs as well as researchers themselves have responsibilities in promoting and supporting citizen science and this includes providing access to RE/RI principles and training22.

Make proper recognition of research contributions – alternative metrics.


  • Make adaptive adjustments to accreditation systems, provide new modes of (qualitative) assessment, and connect money to metrics or provide alternative incentives
  • Adjust assessment, acknowledgement, and accreditation systems.

Keep the openness beyond publications, data and code.


  • Create new infrastructures that make storage, access and distribution possible and they also require discussions around the nature of Intellectual Property rights within OS.

This passage is part of D1.3: Conceptual and normative framework for tackling the ethical, epistemic, disciplinary and RI-related challenges of advancing OS-practices written by Kadri Simm, Søren Holm, Rosemarie de la Cruz Bernabe, Mathieu Rochambeau, Jaana Eigi, Bjørn Hofmann, Francois Jost, Olivier Le Gall, Ivars Neiders, Signe Mezinska, Ana Sofia Carvalho, Maria, Strecht, Nathalie Voarino